Climate change is the most important issue in this century. Change in global or regional climate patterns is called climate change. Scientist and ecologist have been studies of the ecosystem for years. They have been come up with new analysis and results. Some of them are built of concern and rest are shocking, all are pointing to one direction they earth is warming to fast and with it consequences have start-up to emerge. The coastline is starting to shrink, mountains of ice are melt, wasteland and, storms are becoming stronger these all are due to global warming.
Pakistan is the 7th most vulnerable country affected by climate change, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the Middle East and South Asia, Pakistan is in a geographic location where average temperatures are predicted to rise faster than others.
Pakistan has potentially faced various weather incidents in the last 50 decade as a result of climate change such as droughts, smog in winter, forest fires in summer, glacial lake outbursts, freaky, cyclones, and heat waves have taken a heavy toll on both life and property and adversely affected the country’s economic growth. In 30 April 2017, the temperature in the southern city of Nawabshah soared to 122.4 degrees Fahrenheit (50.2 degrees Celsius), the hottest day on earth ever recorded in April. Most people in Nawabshah migrated to another place due to extreme heat. The floods of 2010 alone, for instance, killed 1,600 people, inundated an area of 38,600 square kilometers (km2 ) and caused damage worth around $10 billion almost 10% of Pakistan’s. Similarly (June 2015), heatwaves in Karachi killed more than 1,200 people. In the last 50 years, the average annual temperature in Pakistan has increased by about 0.5 °C. During the past 30 years, the number of heatwaves has increased almost five times each year. Annual rainfall has historically seen more variation but has increased slightly over the past 50 years. in the last century, the sea level along the coast of Karachi has increased by about 10 centimeters. By the end of this century, the average global temperature in Pakistan is expected to rise from 3°C to 5°C in the Central global emission scenario, while higher global emissions may rise from 4°C to 6°C.
Human activities are changing the natural greenhouse. During the last century, the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), because the coal or oil burning process combines carbon with oxygen in the air to make CO2. Since the industrial era began, we started to burn thousands of tons of coal. With the invention of the cars, we also started running oil, when electricity came we started generated electricity from gas. Now imagine the fuel we have been burning in the atmosphere for centuries what will be the effect of it in our climate.
In the world, countries who emit a large number of GHG. China 2.7.5%, USA 14.7%, India 6.43%, Russia 4.86%, Japan 2.99% . Pakistan contributes less than 0.78% greenhouse gases, but its people are among the world’s most vulnerable victims of the growing consequences of climate change. According to the national GHG inventory of Pakistan for the year 2011–2012, its total GHG emissions was at 369 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. These comprised CO3 54%, Methane (CH4) 36%, Nitrous Oxide (N2O) 9%, Carbon Monoxide (CO) 0.7%, and Non-Methane 0.3%. The energy sector is the largest source of GHG emission in Pakistan; it accounts for nearly 51% of these emissions and is followed by the agriculture sector (39%), industrial processes (6%), land use, land-use change and forest (3%) emissions and waste (1%).
Pakistan ranks are low among countries on a per capita greenhouse gases emissions basis, due to its relatively low level of development and high population. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have accelerated to an unprecedented level despite global efforts to cut down emissions. Climate model projections indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise 0.3°C to 1.7°C (0.5°F to 3.1°F).
According to a preliminary projection, the Greenhouse gases emissions levels for Pakistan are expected to increase many times in the coming decades. This is based on the assumption that the GHG emissions intensity for the above-indicated five main sectors will remain essentially the same as during 1994–2008. Thus, the projected total greenhouse gases emissions of Pakistan in line with the government’s economic growth strategy will be more than double by 2020 (compared to the emissions in 2008), an increase by around 14 times by 2050.
The impact of global warming affecting every country in the world. But the developing countries like Pakistan, where climate change is adaptation challenges. People who live in poverty to be hardest hit by climate. Because the poor are over dependent on natural resources and have less of ability to adapt to a changing climate. The government should take several different steps to reduce climate change, giving information about the impacts of climate change to the people, more trees should be planted as they are planted in Pakistan, Carbon dioxide absorbing machines should be installed which keep the air clean in the cities, instead of burning the garbage it should be reprocessed.