1. Article

Climate Change and Pakistan

The earth’s climate has been evolving continuously over millennia but the last two Centuries have witnessed the development of the greenhouse problem, which threatens to change climate in an unprecedented manner. The side effects of climate change already exist expressing itself around the world in the form of extreme weather events Such as cyclones, storms, floods, droughts that are increasing in frequency and intensity. Over the last century, the temperature of Northern Asia rises yearly 2.9 ° C. Nations in the Asian region are particularly concerned about the construction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as climate change-related to hurricanes, floods and droughts, as well as increased levels of surface area Because of its potential impact. Asian region has historically been subject to fluctuations in monsoons, El Nion southern Chuvand and tropical storms. According to the latest scientific assessment, Earth’s climate system exists. The global and regional scale has changed significantly since before the industrialization far off. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects that the global average temperature can rise between 1.4 and 5.8oC before the present century ends. This unprecedented increase is expected to have profound effects Global hydrological systems, ecosystems, surface seas, crop production and so on, the effect will be particularly severe in tropical areas Contains developing countries. (1)

Pakistan is the second-largest country in South Asia and consists mainly of dry or cold areas with low productivity. The geography varies across the country, which can make a big difference in the climate of the country. The climate ranges from mild to cold and hot, dry summers in the north to semi-arid and arid zones in the west and south. The country is connected to the Himalayas in the north, the mountain ranges of the Suleiman to the east, and the lowland plains of the Indus in the south, west and coastal areas. Sixty percent (60%) of the total area of Indus water flow is located in Pakistan. According to the 2018 Global Climate Risk Index released by the public policy group German watch, Pakistan is included in one of 10 countries which are effect most by climate change Pakistan shares less than a percent of the world’s greenhouse gases which cause global warming, millions of individuals among the world’s most susceptible victims of the growing result of climate change. The country is facing consistently rising temperatures, dry season and flooding that undermine health, horticulture, water supplies and hope being developed of a general public that position in the bottom quarter of countries, On the base of individual income.

According to a 2012 World Wildlife Fund report, Pakistan is at a geographical location where average temperatures are predicted to rise faster than anywhere else, with a temperature of 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) by 2100. ) Will increase. This past April 30, the temperature in the southern city of Nawabshah took off to 122.4 degrees Fahrenheit (50.2 degrees Celsius), the most sizzling day on earth at any point recorded in April, the Pakistan Meteorological Department and World Meteorological Organization said. It was much more smoking in the southern city of Turbat on May 28, 2017, when the temperature hit a sizzling 128.3 degrees Fahrenheit (53.5 Celsius). In the year 2017, in excess of 60 individuals have passed on from the heat in Karachi, the nation’s biggest city. A lot of people die of heat-related diseases across the country, however careful quantities of passings are not kept. In June 2015, in excess of 1,200 individuals passed due to heat across the country and 65,000 were treated for heat ailments, the Provincial Disaster Management Authority for the Karachi district reported. Depleting water supplies are another issue in a nation where 60 percent of the land gets under 10 creeps of downpour for every year. Waterways are principally sustained by the Hindu Kush-Karakoram Himalayan ice sheets, which are softening quickly because of a dangerous atmospheric devotion. More than 60 people have died from the heat waves in Karach. Many more died of heat-related disease across the country, but exact numbers of deaths are not kept.June 2015, more than 1,200 people died from the heat nationwide and 65,000 were treated for heat illnesses, the Provincial Disaster Management Authority for the Karachi region reported. Depleting water supplies are another problem in a country where 60 percent of the land receives less than 10 inches of rain per year. Rivers are mainly fed by the Hindu Kush-Karakoram Himalayan glaciers, which are melting rapidly due to global warming.
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Greenhouse gases are those gases in the atmosphere that have an impact on the earth’s energy stability. The reputable greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane and nitrous oxide, can be found naturally in low concentrations in the atmosphere, water vapour, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are also in the list of greenhouse gases. since the beginning of the last century, the proportion has increased significantly due to various man-made sources. when the concentration of these gases increases in atmosphere they effects the greenhouse, The natural greenhouse effect makes life on earth feasible, as it has right up ’til today. the greenhouse effect cause to worm the earth’s surface When the energy of Sun reaches to the atmosphere of Earth, some of it is reflected back and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases, The absorbed energy warms the surface and the atmosphere of the Earth. This process retains the temperature of Earth at around 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would otherwise be, allowing life on Earth to exist. (3)

Coal, cured oil, and natural gases are included in fossil fuels. And they are currently primery energy sours in the world. Fossil fuels are a limited resource and can also cause unnecessary damage to the environment. The greenhouse effect contributed by these gases and could lead to disastrous changes in the climate of the earth. Oil is the world’s essential fuel hotspot for transportation. Most oil is siphoned out of underground stores, but it can also be found embedded in shale and tar sands. raw petroleum is handled in petroleum processing plants to make fuel oil, gasoline, melted oil gas, and other nonfuel items, for example, pesticides, manures, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. As common oil from underground reservoirs runs out, more oil producers are turning to unconventional sources such as tar sands and oil shale. Coal is basically used to produce electricity. But it has a dark side because of gases come out during combustion of coal. In the result of combustion of coal leads to air pollutants such as acid rain inducing sulfur dioxide, mercury, and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The mining activities can also be very harm to the environment, as result vegetation and top-soil become desolation. Rivers and streams can also be affected, destroyed or polluted by mine’s raw. Natural gas is generally used to produce heat or electrical energy for buildings or industrial processes, transportation fuel, typically for bus fleets. the burning process of natural gas is much cleaner than oil and coal, the release of sulfur dioxide is almost zero. Emission of carbon dioxide of Natural gases is almost 30 percent as compare to oil. And 43 percent less than coal. Natural gas, which is mainly composed of methane (CH4), is also induced by the decay of municipal waste. Methane is a greenhouse gas that is more than 20 times as strong as carbon dioxide. Capturing and burning the gas to generate useful heat and power prevents the methane from being released directly into the atmosphere from the landfill or feedlot. (4)

In Pakistan the greenhouse effects in various ways, and we must work to stop these types of activities. Some of the recent highlight activities are cutting off trees, single-use plastic factories. Rubber factories, coal combustion process, all these activities warm the atmosphere. Cutting of trees leads to more production of carbon dioxide and less oxygen by which atmosphere becomes warm. Single-use plastic is most dangerous for the environment because we use plastic one time and then discard, the main dangerous thing is that plastic takes almost 500 years to dissolve or destroy. When this plastic burns it produces harmful gases which are also harmful to the greenhouse, if we drop them in the sea it destroy the Marine life. the raw material of factories are connected directly to the sea which disturbs Marine life, and the smoke come out from factories directly pollute the air.


2 ((Abdul Salam, Special to USA TODAYPublished 10:18 a.m. ET July 24, 2018 | Updated 2:23 p.m. ET July 24, 2018

3 https://www.myclimate.org/information/faq/faq-detail/was-ist-der-treibhauseffekt-1/\

4 https://www.eesi.org/topics/fossil-fuels/description

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